seele impressed the architects with the proposal to implement a sophisticated solution in terms of design and aesthetics. The idea was to create an outer shell as a complete freeform surface over the entire 30,000 square meters of the envelope, characterized by elegance, immaculate uniformity, and a robustness in keeping with the location. The material consisted of thousands of intricately formed stainless steel tubes totaling around 350 kilometers in length. The sustructure of the envelope was made up of a polygonal steel grid, which was wrapped around the primary construction of steel supports and reinforced concrete slabs. A second grid of steel tubes, integrated in a sandwich construction of trapezoidal sheet steel, insulation, and standing seam sheet, precisely formed the desired organic shapes. Stainless steel pipes 9.9mm apart from each other were connected on the standing seam using a specially developed type of mounting. The space between the waterproof shell and the tubes runs parallel. The tubes were attached to the outer shell of the building so that there is no pressure or thermal movement between the shell and the pipes - an essential feature, considering the daytime temperatures of 45°C in the shade. The result of the highly complex implementation is convincing from every perspective. The outer shell of the King Abdulaziz Center clings comfortably to the building without any steps or edges to spoil the smooth appearance, featuring harmonious curves and tubes that run perfectly parallel to one another.